THE THREE FACES OF JAMES


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Culture H is illustrated as having a central core unshaded which represents the formally documented and preserved part of tradition which we are calling heritage. Consider the following examples. The Coke bottle is the first the natives have ever seen, and while they do not know what it is, they interpret it as a gift from the gods. When the artefact creates dissension in the tribe, they depute one of their members to find the gods and return the gift to them. This task brings him into contact with white culture for the first time, but, through a series of misadventures and misunderstandings, he eventually succeeds in getting rid of the bottle.

At the end of his visit, he ritually dies, and leaves the Islands to return the next year, and warfare and normal life resume.

Because Cook visited at a time and in a manner consistent with the myth, he was identified with the god. Unfortunately, he also returned unexpectedly a few weeks after his second visit, and this was, according to Sahlins, interpreted by the Hawaiians as an attempt by Lono to disrupt the cosmic order and take over the role of the other gods. Lono Cook had therefore to be ritually killed. Captain Cook, who did not share the same mythic beliefs as the Hawaiians, actually died as a result. A cultural intrusion can have serious personal consequences.

Among several proximate explanations, he offered the following underlying one:.

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Pizzaro too arrived at Cajamarca [site of the defeat of the Incas] with no information about the Incas…. However, while Pizarro himself happened to be illiterate, he belonged to a literary tradition. From books, the Spaniards knew of many contemporary civilizations remote from Europe, and about several thousand years of European history…. By contrast, not only did Atahuallpa have no conception of the Spaniards themselves, and no personal experience of any other invaders from overseas, but he had not even heard or read of similar threats to anyone else, anywhere else, any time previously in history.

Culture is critical to sustaining a society in the face of change. At the very least, inability to deal means that the society no longer determines its own historical trajectory but surrenders to outside events. This is something that most of us would not welcome, and explains why even nations living under brutal dictators can mobilize citizens in defence in times of war and invasion. They were chosen to point out that culture shapes interpretation of new experience and the action taken to cope with it.

The choice of examples that feature encounters between cultures serves to show how different cultures produce dramatically different interpretations, and even misinterpretations, of the same event, which lead to actions that can have significant repercussions incomprehensible in terms of the original interpretation. The whole history of humankind is a history of global cultural change and diffusion, from the initial expansion of homo sapiens out of Africa one million years ago, to the displacement of hunters and gatherers by agriculturalists starting years ago, to the spread of civilizations from China to the Andes starting about years ago, to the discovery and colonization of the new world by Europeans, the industrial revolution, 27 and the present globalization of communications, entertainment, and commodities.

The historic trajectories of every society have always been buffeted and modified by these flows, and always will. They are more likely to show up as images on the television screen, albeit in sometimes threateningly massive doses. Liebes and Katz studied the reactions of different cultures across the world to the television show Dallas.

They discovered that groups with different cultural backgrounds came to quite different conclusions about what Dallas meant, and were influenced by it in much different ways. In other words, the cultural background of each group led them to appropriate the cultural message differently, even though it was the identical message. Although the program made viewers think, and had the potential to change attitudes and even possibly values and behaviour, viewers used the symbolic and meaning tools provided by their own culture to read and understand the message.

Furthermore, if all society has is culture H as a resource, it is limited to reproducing it as is. The result is a very static society with an unchanging culture H or one that adapts too slowly to cope usefully with outside cultural intrusions. Cultural adaptation can come from three sources. First, obviously, cultural flows from outside bringing new information, new interpretations, and new world views.

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But this does not solve the problem since it is precisely these outside flows that the society needs the adaptation mechanism to cope with. The problem cannot be the solution or it is not the problem. Of course, the flow can bring useful new symbolic tools in the long run, but the problem of adaptation is in the short run. So the nimble, short run adaptation mechanism must come initially from within.


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In fact, they may even be its advocates. They experiment with meaning, and if we or at least our teachers pay attention to the arts, we will be influenced by them. If they are our own arts, created by artists who are working within our own cultural ambiance, the new tools and resources they develop will be easier for us to appropriate than the new information from outside, because, even though they are themselves new information, they arise out of a tradition we all share in common.

The presence of a lively cultural C sector, and active participation by members of society in it, results in a literate, sceptical body of cultural citizens ready to confront any cultural change flowing toward them from outside. Not only were they isolated, but they likely did not have a rich tradition of critical arts in the sense that European cultures do. It is important to note that the Europeans did not have nearly the easy conquests in Asia that they did in the Americas, which they reached at about the same time.

These cultures were able to formulate responses which did a much better job of appropriating the flows they were faced with. If the nation were to be deprived of the good, it could no longer sustain itself, or more particularly, defend itself against potential enemies. It is therefore critical that it retain capacity for production of this good within its borders, even if that production is economically inefficient.

The nation then loses the ability to defend itself and is defeated. To avoid this possibility, a nation will ensure that it has production capacity for strategic goods under its own control. Categorizing a good or resource this way is a justification for protecting its production with subsidies, exempting it from trade agreements, or banning its export outright.

Whether the concept of a strategic good is still valid in this day and age, most countries nevertheless have regulations dealing with strategic goods. The Israeli respondents to the Liebes and Katz study used their culture as a strategic good when interpreting the content of Dallas in their own ways and re-formulating the ideas to suit their particular social circumstances. As long as they are interested in maintaining the possibility of a national character and institutional underpinnings that differ from those that would sustain other countries or communities i. It enables the collectivity to model a future for itself and develop consensus around solutions and action strategies.

It provides the symbolic resources that people need to appropriate new meanings and skew them to their own welfare. Culture H provides citizens with benchmarks against which to test the consequences of new ideas, and culture C provides citizens with the new formulations of ideas needed to devise appropriate action strategies. As one of the last living Pop Art pioneers, James Francis Gill expertly captures the American Dream in his stunning new collection of serigraphs. Merging iconography with startling colour, he is inspired by magazines like Time , Life and National Geographic.

For his sliced artworks, he overlays different strips of paintings or drawings to juxtapose images and concepts. Image size: Use this calculator to see which finance option suits your purchase. The Release Happening. Political Prisoner - Twin Towers. Mini Bug - Pink Sky. MM Black And White. First published , last updated Our registration number is Credit provided subject to age and status.

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Free UK Delivery. The Night Riders Certificate: Passed History Western. The Shepherd of the Hills Adventure Drama Romance. Overland Stage Raiders Certificate: Passed Western. In Old Oklahoma Certificate: Passed Romance Western. New Frontier Seven Sinners Comedy Drama Romance. The Fighting Seabees Drama Romance War. A Man Betrayed Comedy Crime Drama. Santa Fe Stampede Certificate: Passed Action Adventure Drama. Edit Cast Complete credited cast: John Wayne John Phillips Sigrid Gurie Leni 'Lenchen' Braun Charles Coburn Karl Braun Spencer Charters Welles Roland Varno Eric Von Scherer Sonny Bupp Billy Welles Wade Boteler Clem Higgins Russell Simpson Minister Charles Waldron William Thorpe Wendell Niles Edit Storyline Viennese surgeon Dr.

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Language: English. Runtime: 79 min. Color: Black and White. Edit Did You Know? Trivia Douglas Evans , shown as the master of ceremonies for the radio show "We The People," was a radio announcer in real life. Goofs At c.

go to site Quotes Farmer : There ain't no college professor gonna teach me how to farm my land. John Phillips : How much land you got left that hasn't blown away? Look, men, let's quit arguing and kidding ourselves. We're all in the same boat. And we're all gonna sink unless we stick together. Every one of us has been served with a "dispossess notice," not by Uncle Sam or a bank or some mortgage company, but by a little ol' gal we've been kicking in the teeth, Mother Nature.

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THE THREE FACES OF JAMES THE THREE FACES OF JAMES
THE THREE FACES OF JAMES THE THREE FACES OF JAMES
THE THREE FACES OF JAMES THE THREE FACES OF JAMES
THE THREE FACES OF JAMES THE THREE FACES OF JAMES
THE THREE FACES OF JAMES THE THREE FACES OF JAMES
THE THREE FACES OF JAMES THE THREE FACES OF JAMES
THE THREE FACES OF JAMES THE THREE FACES OF JAMES
THE THREE FACES OF JAMES THE THREE FACES OF JAMES
THE THREE FACES OF JAMES

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