The relationship between e-government and new public management known in Germany as the new control model is evaluated differently by different scholars. But it is also clear that a combination of the limited perception of two one-eyed observers narrow e-government on the one hand and narrow new public management on the other does not produce perspective vision Lenk , p.
The former applies especially to instrumental applications of information and communication technology, particularly the use of information services both internally, e. The system-forming function, on the other hand, leads to a questioning of the task itself, to completely new ways to process the task or to the integration of users into the process of public services. This then requires a re-engineering of administrative products, knowledge management, administrative cooperation and administrative tasks in the light of information technology Heckmann , p.
Electronic government and new public management have much in common. Both modernisation approaches have been welcomed as new paradigms, and for each of them this was also accompanied by disappointments. Both of them were too late - or did too little - to involve "politics", both gave rise to various constitutional misgivings or made it necessary to change the law for new public management cf.
Hill , for e-government cf. Britz ; Schliesky Both concepts aimed to increase the efficiency and power of the administration and improve its service quality and customer orientation OECD a ; von Lucke , p. But there are also differences, although some of them are overemphasised slightly, probably to highlight the contours of the argument.
It is probably true that the new public management approach focused mainly on using goals as a way to achieve control, and especially as a way to change the structural organisation. On the other hand the procedural organisation, i. A major conflict is seen in the fact that new public management involves decentralised responsibility for resources and results, but e-government requires centralisation, e. E-government therefore aims to restore the "unity of the administration" which has been lost as a result of the fragmentation of the organisation in new public management by decentralisation and outsourcing , at least at the level of information Wulff ; Landsberg , p.
However, this contrast can be alleviated in several respects.
Firstly, even in new public management it is necessary to achieve at least comparability of information in the financial control and benchmarking concepts, and even in e-government the processes are broken down into information modules or individual process parts, then integrated again in a similar way to the financial control process. Secondly, in spite of the decentralised responsibility for resources and results in new public management, centralistic tendencies are still apparent in the guiding principles, corporate identity, financial control and agreed goals which define the general requirements such as social standards.
Thus, in both cases it is probably more accurate to speak of centralised decentralisation Weiss, Juri , p. There is a grain of truth in this, in that the management philosophy of the new control model has hardly given any consideration to individual processes, although products and indicators are often defined in practice at the lowest level, and even the new local community accounting model gives intensive consideration to individual accounting questions. Understood correctly, agreed goals in the new control model should draw on exactly this knowledge of the processing of actual cases in contact with the customers and activate the potential of the staff when processes are being redesigned.
On the other hand, e-government does not concentrate solely on local issues of work, production and technology either; instead, it requires a strategic concept and it must be designed by the management. For example, new public management is considered to be largely inward-looking in many countries especially the German new control model , whereas e-government often begins with an outward-looking perspective on-line contact between citizens and the administration. However, the new control model also emphasises the concept of service. It defines products not only from the point of view of control but also from the outside looking inwards, i.
This approach is reinforced by surveys of citizens and customers and by public consultation in the definition and development of services. On the other hand, e-government cannot stop at the walls of the town hall or the administration's website. Instead, the processes must be redesigned throughout; in recent discussions, the redesign of back-offices has been assigned special importance Kubicek et al ; Lenk etc. It is also alleged that new public management deals mainly with questions of institutional organisation and that e-government is usually biased towards data and information.
This, too, is only true to a limited extent. Finally, it is suggested that new public management focuses mainly on vertical control relationships via the hierarchy or performance contracts whereas horizontal networking options within the organisation and across organisational boundaries play an important role for e-government. Deutschland Online cf. Wewer ; Tiefensee The two modernisation concepts therefore have more points of contact than are apparent at first glance.
A reciprocal relationship, interaction and use of these reform concepts therefore appears necessary. In the administrative modernisation of the s the following development was often observed: starting from the classical regulatory local community with bureaucratically organised public authorities and bureaucratic actions, first of all a service community arose with institutions which were focused on economic viability and customer orientation, then came a community of citizens which integrated citizens into the political and administrative process and even included independent fulfilment of public tasks by citizens acting on their own responsibility Banner ; Winkel At the state level, the community of citizens corresponded to the concept of the empowering state which was also based on the idea of the integration of citizens and shared responsibility Hill b.
But the study also pointed out that compared with the administrative tasks, the political and democratic aspects of e-government are still underdeveloped in practice. This was partly due to the lack of a tradition of direct democracy, and partly to the extreme focus on technological issues. In most cases, these two factors led to projects which were not integrated into existing processes and structures. This led to the insight that new media can support political processes especially by improving the quality of the available information, and that they can simplify the creation of networks over long distances.
The Internet is mainly used in the preparation of decisions.
But it is still not able to motivate uninterested citizens to participate in planning processes. Ignace Snellen sub-divides the information and communication relationship between politics, the administration and citizens in the democratic process into three phases: policy development and design, policy implementation and policy evaluation and monitoring. He criticises the fact that attention has so far been focused mainly on the application of modern information and communication technology in the second phase, the implementation of policy.
He suggests that the first phase includes initiatives towards interactive policy design and a joint development of policy on specific issues, and for the third phase he proposes issues such as administrative complaints, benchmarking, freedom of information laws and petitions to the courts Snellen Initiatives towards interactive policy design and electronic consultation and feedback processes also play a major role in the information and communication policies of the European Union Hill c. The Commission's paper on the role of e-government in the future of Europe therefore emphasises not only productivity, but also the transparency of the public sector and the integration inclusion of users and the general public Commission a, p.
The parallel existence of public and private organisational forms in local communities and the state requires a definition of joint goals to ensure the strategic control and coordination of all stakeholders and sectors Hill Good governance thus refers to the quality of cooperation and decision-making in the relationship between the state and social groups in affairs of public interest Hill ; in more detail: Hill b.
Parallel to this governance concept in local communities and the state, the concept of public e-governance has also developed. Jeremy Millard comments: "Governance is not just about services but also about the management and institutions of society and the distribution of power between all legitimate actors and stakeholders" Millard a. Tony Bovaird distinguishes between the "'services improvement' agenda" and the "'relationships improvement' agenda". The former stands for e-government and the electronic provision of public services, but the second agenda stands for e-governance, which is understood to mean electronic provision of all other activities of government e.
Bovaird , p. The European Institute of Public Administration in Maastricht, in its study "eGovernment in Europe: The State of Affairs" which was presented at the e-government conference of the European Commission in Como Italy on 7 and 8 July , also considers that e-government is a key to good governance in the information society. It suggests that the following principles of good governance should be implemented by e-government: coherence in the development and coordination of policy, participative democracy in policy making, consistency, effectiveness and efficiency in policy implementation, transparency and openness in the whole policy development process Leitner , p.
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Governance concepts not only serve for the control and coordination of the various stakeholders in the state, business and society, they also place demands on the ethics and responsibility of state action. For example, in its White Paper "European Governance" of 25 July the European Union listed the following principles of good governance: openness, participation, responsibility, effectiveness and coherence Commission , p. The possibilities created by new information and communication technology mean that the concepts of "Good Governance" and "Public Service Ethics" in the electronic age must also be reconsidered Lorig For example, the OECD "Project on the impact of E-government" explicitly took as its starting point the fact that e-government has the potential to be a major enabler in the adoption of good governance practices.
The following good governance practices were mentioned: legitimacy, rule of law, transparency, integrity, efficiency, coherence, adaptability to new challenges, participation and consultations OECD a ; Hill a. In this connection, there are significant projects in various OECD states which aim to regulate issues such as electronic feedback for public servants, public consultation and active participation OECD a , p.
The provisions defining how the administration deals with electronic public participation and the attempts to regulate the rights of citizens in electronic communication can be regarded as attempts to develop good e-governance. The introduction of e-government is fraught with many difficulties and obstacles. The costs and benefits cannot always be clearly identified.
Success is not automatically guaranteed. Therefore it is not surprising that e-government as a modernisation project is accompanied by a wide variety of advice, good practice examples and interim conclusions Mehlich , p.
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The demand for the accountability of all governments and administrations, which is made in the name of good governance, is thus bearing fruit. For example, the strategy of the German government for the second phase of the government programme "Modern state - modern administration", which is built on the three pillars of modern administrative management, a reduction of bureaucracy and e-government, demands that modernisation instruments and measures must be evaluated to ensure the effectiveness of administrative action Federal Ministry of the Interior , p.
This shows the importance which is assigned to the evaluation approach in the national and European arenas. In the course of the accompanying research for the MEDIA Komm competition which was sponsored by the Federal Ministry of the Economy and Technology, the German Institute of Urban Affairs developed an on-line guide "The success model of local e-government" which contained ten success factors with good practice examples, questions, answers and recommendations for action BMWA In St.
Gallen, a basic model of e-government was developed which can also be used by the administrations either as a checklist or as a framework for action.
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On the basis of this self-evaluation tool, a fast e-government test was created Schedler etc. In the first phase of the project a front office maturity assessment tool was developed, and the second phase created an organisation quality assessment tool. In view of this confusing diversity of self-evaluation models it would be advisable to harmonise them, which would improve the comparability of the evaluation results between local communities. There are now many such comparisons of local e-government activities, especially carried out by consulting companies.
At the European level, three benchmark studies of 20 selected services have been carried out at intervals of six months in recent years on behalf of the European Commission to determine the range of electronic services offered by the public sector in the EU member states Hill a , a. Now, there are already several meta benchmarking studies at the European level which compare the measurement approaches and criteria of different benchmarking studies with each other Janssen etc.
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